The increasing oil demand around the world along with the depletion of onshore and shallow water oil reserves have forced the oil companies moving into the development of deepwater subsea hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Drilling fluids play a key role in all drilling operations, but they get a greater relevance in deepwater environments where the technological challenges of drilling at these extreme conditions generate significant operational risks as well as very high costs during the development of this kind of fields.
Therefore, the present chapter aims to give an overview on the main challenges and research related to drilling fluid design and application for deepwater fields through the revision of the state of the art of the current and innovative technological solutions reported in literature.
Recent Insights in Petroleum Science and Engineering. Exploration and production operations in deepwater and ultra-deepwater fields around the world have suffered important and critical changes over the last years. Deepwater is generally considered as any water depth greater than ft. New records for water depth and measured depth in deepwater are being set regularly.10. Basic mud engineer , Basic mud composition
In general, developments of deepwater fields are carried out under conditions of high-costs, high-risks, and long-duration projects; thus, they are usually less sensitive to short-term fluctuations in oil prices than onshore developments [ 123 ]. Drilling is a primordial and critical stage in the success of exploration of deepwater fields.
TAU-MOD™ Viscosifying/Suspension Agent
The overriding drilling objectives are to reach the target safely in the shortest possible time and at the lowest possible cost, with required additional sampling and evaluation constraints dictated by the particular application.
Drilling itself is a much larger share of total well costs in offshore development than in onshore development. Key cost drivers for offshore drilling include water depth, well depth, reservoir pressure and temperature, field size, and distance from shore.
In this way, new deepwater discoveries around the world become challenging tasks of technical, operational, environmental, and economic issues, where many of those tasks are focused on the selection, development, and application of drilling and completion fluids technologies [ 12345 ].
The design, selection, and application of the right fluid system or additives require balancing each of these issues with regard to their impact on the deepwater drilling operation. There are several works reported in literature about topics reviewed in the present chapter; however, some of them just deal about challenges on deepwater drilling operations whereas others just deal about drilling fluids systems to control some of the operational problems found during deepwater drilling.
Therefore, the present chapter aims to give a general overview on the main challenges and research related to drilling fluid design and application for deepwater fields through the revision of the state of the art of the current and innovative technological solutions reported in literature, where the drilling fluid systems and additives used to treat and control these problematic and challenging tasks are also carefully reviewed.
The geological aspects to consider during deepwater drilling are very different from those found on land and in shallow water. Generally, geological formations found in deepwater fields are relatively young and very reactive [ 1112131415 ]. In this way, it is generally accepted that highly reactive shale formations are intrinsic to deepwater drilling, where their interaction with drilling fluids is the main factor in wellbore instability, which is considered one of the major causes of troubles, waste of time, and over costs during drilling [ 161718 ].
Wellbore instability is mainly due to the clays dispersion into ultra-fine colloidal particles, which has a direct effect on the drilling fluid properties and performance [ 19 ].
Generally, wellbore stability is not a concern for most shale formations when drilling is carried out by using oil-based and synthetic-based drilling fluids. However, the use of these drilling fluids is limited due to high costs and environmental restrictions particularly for deepwater operations [ 1619 ].
Thus, growing environmental concerns currently require the replacement of oil-based fluids by environmentally friendly water-based drilling fluids, which can interact with shales promoting undesirable clay-swelling phenomena [ 20 ].
Wellbore instability problems caused by clay swelling have been widely reported: sloughing shales, hole closure causing tight hole, cave-ins leading to fill on trips, and problems when running casing. In addition, other important problems have been identified such as cuttings accumulation leading to reduced hole-cleaning efficiency, buildup of thick cuttings beds, and reduced rates of penetration arising from balling of the drill bit with sticky clay [ 1315 ].
Moreover, wellbore instability can result in the loss of the drilling assembly, well side-tracks or in the worst case total abandonment of the well. Consequently, these problems can significantly reduce drilling rates as well as increase considerably the costs of exploration and production [ 15 ]. Therefore, minimizing and controlling shale-fluid interactions during deepwater drilling become one of the most important challenges for the design and selection of deepwater drilling fluids. Clay minerals account for about 50—60 wt.
Clays are naturally occurring minerals formed by the weathering and decomposition of igneous rocks.I agree to the terms and conditions. Sign In with Email. Remember Me Forgot Password? MUDUP high-purity, high molecular weight polysaccharide polymer for building high viscosities. It is also used for fluid loss control.
It increases viscosity in fresh to saturated brine i. It imparts viscosity, fluid loss control and gelling characteristics to freshwater-based drilling fluids. SOL Guar also known as Guar Gum and is a common oilfield chemical due to it being an economical source of polymer viscosifier and is used basically in both fresh water and salt water based muds for providing viscosity and control fluid loss.
SOL PHPA is primarily used for its efficiency in reducing fluid loss and maintaining hole stability and is compatible with most drilling fluid products. It is a co-polymer of anionic character and high molecular weight. It is a water-soluble polymer, which is primarily used as a highly efficient fluid loss reducer, viscosifier and protective colloid for shale's and cutting in fresh water, calcium, sodium brines and KCL mud systems.
NAPGEL is an organically modified bentonite used as a gelling and viscosifying agent for primarily oil based drilling fluids. It is a high molecular weight polysaccharide produced by fermentation of carbohydrate with xanthomonas campestris.
It is even carrying capacity and fluid loss to any type of make up water system. Haizan DHV is high viscosity dispersible xanthan gum biopolymer that gives high viscosity build at low shear rates. It can be utilized as a viscosifier in oilfield drilling, workover and completion fluids.
It is a high molecular weight polysaccharide produced by fermentation of carbohydrate with Xanthomonas Campestris. Stay updated with the latest chemical industry trends and innovations. Verification Code has been sent to. Please enter the Verification Code below to verify your Email Address.It is a Premium-grade sodium montmorillonite clay, used as primary filter-cake building, increase viscosity and reduce filtration-control and suspension agent in water-base mud systems.
Chemically untreated, premium-grade sodium montmorillonite clay, used as primary filter-cake building, filtration-control and suspension agent in water-base mud systems. This mineral is also ideal in drilling fluids because it expands when exposed to water. This expansion helps down hole formations to be sealed from invading drilling fluids. It can be utilized as a Viscosifier in oilfield drilling, workover and completion fluids.
In oil field applications, Xanthan Gum has demonstrated unique rheological characteristics that provide optimum hole cleaning and suspension. GUAR GUM is used primarily as a viscous slugging fluid, pumped at connections to ensure that all cuttings are removed from the annulus while drilling surface holes with water.
It can be used in brackish water, salt saturated water or KCL brine. Attapulgite clay, meets API specifications 13A section 12, used to provide viscosity and hole cleaning capabilities in drilling fluids with high concentrations of salts. Close Menu. Arabic English Russian Spanish.In many areas, diesel is used to formulate and maintain oil muds.
In remote areas where diesel may not be plentiful, crude oil can be used instead of diesel. Crude oils should be tested prior to their use, since they may pose safety problems. Mineral oils and the new synthetic fluids are replacements for diesel, especially because of their lower toxicity compared to diesel.
However these fluids are usually higher in cost compared to diesel. There are a wide variety of oils available for use in oil muds. The properties of these oils can have a significant effect upon the physical properties of the oil mud.
The properties of the oil which are tested are:. Crude Oils - crude oil can be used in place of diesel as the base oil in areas where diesel may not be available in sufficient quantities to formulate and maintain an oil-based mud system. There are some disadvantages with using crude oil as listed below. Refined Oils- the refined oils are those such as diesel or kerosene which is the most commonly used oil to formulate and maintain oil-based muds.
Synthetic Fluids - The base fluids in synthetic muds are non-petroleum organic compounds that act like petroleum-derived oils in drilling operations but appear to biodegrade readily in the ocean. Like most OBMs, synthetic muds are invert emulsions, with the synthetic fluid serving as the external, or continuous, phase and a brine serving as the internal phase.
Viscosifiers, Suspending Agents
Several base fluids, mainly in the size range CC24, have been introduced in the marketplace during the last few years. Properties - In the field, synthetic drilling fluids are thought to perform as well as conventional OBM's. Get My Free Ebook. Responses Penelope Does flashpoint vary with age of diesel?
Maxine What base oil is used for obm drilling fluids? Heike What are the base fluids in synthetic drilling fluid? Faramond Can diesel be used as base oil? Post a comment Name Comment it upDrilling fluids should have transport abilities, suspension capabilities and gelatin properties. Viscosifiers are the products that give a drilling fluid these basic rheological properties. These properties may be enhanced with other additives to comprise an engineered fluid solution for each unique drilling situation.
Technical Assistance Research. Contact Us. Overview Data Sheets. Viscosifiers Drilling fluids should have transport abilities, suspension capabilities and gelatin properties. HDD fluid concentrate and free-flowing dry powder. A single sack, boring fluid system specially formulated for use in horizontal directional drilling HDD application. Free-flowing, powdered and easily dispersed biopolymer.
An easy-to-mix, finely ground meshpremium-grade, high-yielding Wyoming sodium bentonite.
Designed to viscosify brackish or saline make-up water for use only in the Asia-Pacific region. Helps provide high yield and rheological stability in systems that contain large concentrations of salt. Data Sheets Choose Area. Itenhances the carrying capacity of both clay and polymer-base drillingfluids without significantly increasing the viscosity of the slurry.
The enhanced viscosity development filtrationproperties and resultant fluid stability make QUIK-GEL GOLD high-yieldbentonite viscosifier the new benchmark in the industrial drillingapplications market.It is frequently used to increase the hole-cleaning capacity for sweeps in directional or horizontal wells and for gelling freshly prepared muds being transported to the well. HRP viscosifier is a versatile additive that works in conjunction with organophilic clay and can be used to minimize the amount of clay in a particular formulation.
Time and shear or chemical treatments can be used to later thin a fluid treated with HRP viscosifier. The product increases low-shear-rate viscosity [LSRV] to improve shear thinning and thixotropic characteristics. HRP viscosifier can be utilized to provide suspension in freshly prepared fluids under conditions where insufficient shear and temperature at the mixing plant do not allow the other viscosifiers in the formulation to yield.
It will provide a satisfactory yield point and gel structure to support weight material with a minimal concentration of organophilic clay such as VG clay. This prevents excessive amounts of organophilic clay from being used which could lead to undesirable high viscosities once the mud is displaced into the well.
HRP viscosifier works with organophilic clay to develop viscosity. This viscosity will diminish with high shear and time, so treatments will be needed on a regular basis. HRP viscosifier may be used in existing systems to provide increased yield point and gel strengths for improved hole cleaning and weight material suspension.
For treatments to an existing fluid, 0. It can be used for viscous sweeps or for spacer fluids where thickened oil mud is needed to separate two fluids during a displacement. The recommended concentration for sweeps and thickened oil mud spacers is 0.
Bioassay information is available upon request. Handle as an industrial chemical, wearing protective equipment and observing the precautions described in the safety data sheet.
HRP viscosifier is packaged in 5-galUS [ Store in a dry, well-ventilated area. Keep container closed. Keep away from heat, sparks and flames. Store away from incompatibles. Follow safe warehousing practices regarding palletizing, banding, shrink-wrapping, and stacking. Premium content requires special account permissions. We need a little more information from you before we can grant you access. Download PDF.
Contact Us. Related Documents. Related Products. VG Organophilic clay Improve carrying capacity, suspension properties, filtercake formation, and filtration control. Load More. Related Information View All. Share This. Don't have an account? Click below to get started.CoreMix is a polysaccharide-based product containing inhibitive potassium ion and sized calcium carbonate for filtration control. CoreMix is designed as a one-sack system for oilsand drilling and coring. CoreMix is formulated to enhance core recovery, minimize filtrate invasion, and reduce the….
Extra High Yield Bentonite is used as the base fluid for many water-based drilling fluids. Oilgel is an effective viscosifier in oil and invert emulsion systems. It is used primarily as a viscosifier in fresh water, seawater or saline muds. Used primarily as a viscosifier in fresh water, seawater or saline muds. It also provides a measure of filtration…. It is chemically referred to as anhydrous magnesium silicate also commonly known as Sepiolite clay or Salt Gel.
Sea Mud can be used as a viscosifier in…. Customer Login. Products Products you selected. CoreMix CoreMix is a polysaccharide-based product containing inhibitive potassium ion and sized calcium carbonate for filtration control. Find a Di-Corp Location. Your Email. Resources SDS.